Publications

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Highlights in thermal engineering at Carlo Gavazzi Space

Publication: 17th_EWTES_MOLINA_FREQUENCYDOMAIN.pdf

Source: 17th Workshop on Thermal and ECLS Software-ESTEC

Author: Marco Molina, Christian Vettore

Year: 2003

Content Tags: third-party software, radks, heating rates

Nonlinear Programming Applied to Thermal and Fluid Design Optimization

Historically, thermal/fluid modeling began as a means of validating and sometimes correcting passively cooled designs that had been proposed by nonspecialists in heat transfer and fluid flow. As dissipation fluxes have risen, and as air cooling reaches the limits of its usefulness, involvement of thermal engineers is required earlier in the design process. Thermal engineers are now commonly responsible for sizing and selecting active cooling components such as fans and heat sinks, and increasingly single and two-phase coolant loops.

Meanwhile, heat transfer and fluid flow design analysis software has matured, growing both in ease of use and in phenomenological modeling prowess. Unfortunately, most software retains a focus on point-design simulations and needs to do a better job of helping thermal engineers not only evaluate designs, but also investigate alternatives and even automate the search for optimal designs.

This paper shows how readily available nonlinear programming (NLP) techniques can be successfully applied to automating design synthesis activities, allowing the thermal engineer to approach the problem from a higher level of automation. This paper briefly introduces NLP concepts, and then demonstrates their application both to a simplified fin (extended surface) as well as a more realistic case: a finned heat sink.

Publication: Optimizing.pdf

Source: ITherm

Author: Brent A. Cullimore

Year: 2002

Content Tags: design optimization, parametric, design synthesis, design variables, variables, sink temperature

Parametric Thermal Analysis and Optimization Using Thermal Desktop

Thermal analysis is typically performed using a point design approach, where a single model is analyzed one analysis case at a time. Changes to the system design are analyzed by updating the thermal radiation and conduction models by hand, which can become a bottleneck when attempting to adopt a concurrent engineering approach. This paper presents the parametric modeling features that have been added to Thermal DesktopTM to support concurrent engineering. The thermal model may now be characterized by a set of design variables that are easily modified to reflect system level design changes. Geometric features, optical and material properties, and orbital elements may all be specified using user-defined variables and expressions. Furthermore, these variables may be automatically modified by Thermal Desktop’s optimization capabilities in order to satisfy user-defined design goals, or for correlating thermal models to test data. By sharing the set of design variables among analysis models spanning multiple disciplines, further integrated analysis and design may be accomplished. The framework into which Thermal Desktop is embedded in order to support an integrated Thermal/Structural/Optical design, analysis, and optimization system is also presented.

Publication: 00ICES-266.pdf

Source: ICES

Author: Timothy D. Panczak, Brent A. Cullimore

Year: 2000

Content Tags: concurrent engineering, parametric, parameterize, register, registers, dynamic mode, dynamic SINDA, symbol manager, expression editor, expressions, design optimization, orbital heating, model correlation, solver, optical properties, heat pipes, symbol, variables, case set manager, properties, structural

Automating Thermal Analysis with Thermal Desktop

Thermal analysis is typically executed with multiple tools in a series of separate steps for performing radiation analysis, generating conduction and capacitance data, and for solving temperatures. This multitude of programs often leads to many user files that become unmanageable with their multitude, and the user often looses track as to which files go with which cases. In addition to combining the output from multiple programs, current processes often involve the user inputting various hand calculations into the math model to account for MLI/Insulation and contact conductance between entities. These calculations are not only tedious to make, but users often forget to update them when the geometry is changed.

Several new features of Thermal Desktop are designed to automate some of the tedious tasks that thermal engineers now practice. To start with, Thermal Desktop is a single program that does radiation analysis, generates conduction/capacitance data and automates the building of a SINDA/FLUINT model to solve for temperatures. Some of these new features of Thermal Desktop are Radiation Analysis Groups, Property Aliases, MLI/Insulation Objects, Contact Conductance Objects, Model Browser, and the Case Set Manager.

This paper describes the application and benefits of Thermal Desktop along with other unique features used to automate the thermal analysis process.

Publication: tDesktop99.pdf

Source: ICES

Author: Mark J. Welch, Tim Panczak

Year: 1999

Content Tags: radiation analysis groups, property, alias, multi-layer insulation, mli, insulation, contact conductance, model browser, case set manager

Integrating Thermal And Structural Analysis with Thermal Desktop

Structural and thermal engineers currently work independently of each other using unrelated tools, models, and methods. Without the ability to rapidly exchange design data and predicted performance, the achievement of the ideals of concurrent engineering is not possible.

Thermal codes have been unable to exploit the geometric information in structural models and the CAD design database, and do not facilitate transfer of temperature data to other discipline’s analysis models. This paper discusses the key features in Thermal Desktop for supporting integrated thermal/structural analysis. Approaches to thermal modeling in an integrated analysis environment are discussed along with Thermal Desktop's data mapping algorithm for exporting temperature data on to structural model grid points.

Publication: 99es-40.pdf

Source: ICES

Author: Tim Panczak, Mark J. Welch

Year: 1999

Content Tags: structural, finite elements, finite difference, structural mesh, temperature mapping, temperature map, concurrent engineering, concurrent design, radiation calculations, CAD geometry, postprocessing, orbit, orbital heating, radiation analysis groups, Monte Carlo, ray tracing, data mapper, solver

FDM/FEM System-level Analysis of Heat Pipes and LHPs in Modern CAD Environments

Publication: aerospace2005heatpipes.pps

Source: Aerospace Thermal Control Workshop

Author: Brent Cullimore, Jane Baumann

Year: 2005

Content Tags: LHP, Loop Heat Pipe, radiation analysis groups, concurrent engineering, heat pipe, system-level modeling, noncondensable gas, VCHP, CCHP, wall, two-phase heat transfer, two-phase flow, condenser, condensers, evaporator, evaporators

The Design and Performance of a Water Cooling System for a Prototype Coupled Cavity linear Particle Accelerator for the Spallation Neutron Source

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. The SNS will generate and employ neutrons as a research tool in a variety of disciplines including biology, material science, superconductivity, chemistry, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of, in part, a multi-cell copper structure termed a coupled cavity linac (CCL). The CCL is responsible for accelerating the protons from an energy of 87 MeV, to 185 MeV.

Acceleration of the charged protons is achieved by the use of large electrical field gradients established within specially designed contoured cavities of the CCL. While a large amount of the electrical energy is used to accelerate the protons, approximately 60-80% of this electrical energy is dissipated in the CCL’s copper structure. To maintain an acceptable operating temperature, as well as minimize thermal stresses and maintain desired contours of the accelerator cavities, the electrical waste heat must be removed from the CCL structure. This is done using specially designed water cooling passages within the linac’s copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by a complex water cooling and temperature control system.

This paper discusses the design, analysis, and testing of a water cooling system for a prototype CCL. First, the design concept and method of water temperature control is discussed. Second, the layout of the prototype water cooling system, including the selection of plumbing components, instrumentation, as well as controller hardware and software is presented. Next, the development of a numerical network model used to size the pump, heat exchanger, and plumbing equipment, is discussed. Finally, empirical pressure, flow rate, and temperature data from the prototype CCL water cooling tests are used to assess water cooling system performance and numerical modeling accuracy.

Publication: TED-AJ03-537.pdf

Source: ASME-JSME

Author: John D. Bernardin, Curtt Ammerman, Steve Hopkins

Year: 2003

Content Tags: expansion, contraction, pump, valve, heat exchangers, cooler, heat loads

Customizable Multidiscipline Environments for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Modeling

Thankfully, the age of stand-alone fixed-input simulation tools is fading away in favor of more flexible and integrated solutions. “Concurrent engineering” once meant automating data translations between monolithic codes, but sophisticated users have demanded more native integration and more automated tools for designing, and not just evaluating point designs. Improvements in both interprocess communications technology and numerical solutions have gone a long way towards meeting those demands.

This paper describes a small slice of a larger on-going effort to satisfy current and future demands for integrated multidisciplinary tools that can be highly customized by end-users or by third parties. Specifically, the ability to integrate fully featured thermal/fluid simulations into Microsoft’s Excel™ and other software is detailed. Users are now able not only to prepare custom user interfaces, they can use these codes as portals that allow integration activities at a larger scale. Previous enabling technologies are first described, then examples and repercussions of current capabilities are presented, and finally in-progress and future technologies are listed.

Publication: COMAPI-ICES.pdf

Source: ICES

Author: B. Cullimore, S. G. Ring, J. Baumann

Year: 2004

Content Tags: parametric, parameterize, dynamic mode, dynamic SINDA, third-party software

Automated Determination of Worst-case Design Scenarios

This paper describes readily available techniques for automating the search for worst-case (e.g., “hot case”, “cold case”) design scenarios using only modest computational resources. These methods not only streamline a repetitive yet crucial task, they usually produce better results.

The problems with prior approaches are summarized, then the improvements are demonstrated via a simplified example that is analyzed using various approaches. Finally, areas for further automation are outlined, including attacking the entire design problem at a higher-level.

Publication: WorstCase-ICES.pdf

Source: ICES

Author: B. Cullimore

Year: 2003

Content Tags: parametric, model correlation, design optimization, convergence

Nonlinear Programming Applied to Calibrating Thermal and Fluid Models to Test Data (Semi-Therm 2002)

Nonlinear Programming Applied to Calibrating Thermal and Fluid Models to Test Data (Semi-Therm 2002)

Publication: calibrating.pdf

Source: Semi-Therm

Author: Jane Baumann, Brent Cullimore

Year: 2002

Content Tags: model calibration, model correlation, condenser, condensers, validation, design optimization, parametric

Dealing with Uncertainties and Variations in Thermal Design

The major influence on the reliability of electronics is temperature, yet thermal/fluid modeling is plagued with uncertainties and unknowns. Nonetheless, if appropriate values of these unknown parameters are available for any specific electronics package, then its temperature response can be accurately predicted using modern thermal/fluid analysis tools.

Traditionally, uncertainties are dealt with by a combination of testing, safety factors or margins, and worst-case design scenarios. Analyses are performed iteratively in a repetitive “point design evaluation” mode. Computer-based design simulation tools have emphasized increasing detail and fidelity to physical phenomena, seemingly ignoring the fact that the inputs to these simulations are highly uncertain.

This paper describes both current and future methods of dealing with uncertainties in thermal engineering. It introduces advanced tools and alternative methodologies that can automate not only the quantification of reliability, but can also help synthesize designs on the basis of reliability. It advocates using rapid gains in computer speed not to increase the degree of detail in a model, but to help the engineer find a robust design by automating high-level design tasks.

Publication: IPACK2001-15516.pdf

Source: InterPack

Author: Brent A. Cullimore

Year: 2001

Content Tags: parameterize, parametric, contact conductance, design synthesis, Phenomena, robust design, design optimization, design variables, reliability engineering

Beyond Point Design Evaluation

Publication: NewOsummary.pdf

Source: ASME

Author: Brent A. Cullimore

Year: 2001

Content Tags: model calibration, CFD, parametric, design optimization, design synthesis, Phenomena

Optimization and Automated Data Correlation

Optimization and Automated Data Correlation in the NASA Standard Thermal/Fluid System Analyzer

SINDA/FLUINT (Ref 1-7) is the NASA-standard heat transfer and fluid flow analyzer for thermal control systems. Because of its general formulation, it is also used in other aerospace specialties such as environmental control (ECLSS) and liquid propulsion, and in terrestrial industries such as electronics packaging, refrigeration, power generation, and transportation industries. SINDA/FLUINT is used to design and simulate thermal/fluid systems that can be represented in networks corresponding to finite difference, finite element, and/or lumped parameter equations. In addition to conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer, the program can model steady or unsteady single- and two-phase flow networks. CRTech's SinapsPlus® is a complete graphical user interface (preand postprocessor) and interactive model debugging environment for SINDA/FLUINT (Ref 8, 9). SinapsPlus also supports the C language in addition to the traditional choice of Fortran for concurrently executed user logic. This paper describes revolutionary advances in SINDA/FLUINT, the NASA-standard heat transfer and fluid flow analyzer, changing it from a traditional point-design simulator into a tool that can help shape preliminary designs, rapidly perform parametrics and sensitivity studies, and even correlate modeling uncertainties using available test data. Innovations include the incorporation of a complete spreadsheet-like module that allows users to centralize and automate model changes, even while thermal/fluid solutions are in progress. This feature reduces training time by eliminating many archaic options, and encourages the performance of parametrics and other what-if analyses that help engineers develop an intuitive understanding of their designs and how they are modeled. The more revolutionary enhancement, though, is the complete integration of a nonlinear programming module that enables users to perform formal design optimization tasks such as weight minimization or performance maximization. The user can select any number of design variables and may apply any number of arbitrarily complex constraints to the optimization. This capability also can be used to find the best fit to available test data, automating a laborious but important task: the correlation of modeling uncertainties such as optical properties, contact conductances, as-built insulation performance, natural convection coefficients, etc. Finally, this paper presents an overview of related developments that, coupled with the optimization capabilities, further enhance the power of the whole package.

Publication: sfpaper.pdf

Source: IECEC 1998

Author: Brent A. Cullimore

Year: 1998

Content Tags:

Optimization, Data Correlation, and Parametric Analysis Features in SINDA/FLUINT Version 4.0

This paper describes revolutionary advances in SINDA/FLUINT, the NASA-standard heat transfer and fluid flow analyzer, changing it from a traditional point-design simulator into a tool that can help shape preliminary designs, rapidly perform parametrics and sensitivity studies, and even correlate modeling uncertainties using available test data.

Innovations include the incorporation of a complete spreadsheet-like module that allows users to centralize and automate model changes, even while thermal/fluid solutions are in progress. This feature reduces training time by eliminating many archaic options, and encourages the performance of parametrics and other what-if analyses that help engineers develop an intuitive understanding of their designs and how they are modeled.

The more revolutionary enhancement, though, is the complete integration of a nonlinear programming module that enables users to perform formal design optimization tasks such as weight minimization or performance maximization. The user can select any number of design variables and may apply any number of arbitrarily complex constraints to the optimization. This capability also can be used to find the best fit to available test data, automating a laborious but important task: the correlation of modeling uncertainties such as optical properties, contact conductances, as-built insulation performance, natural convection coefficients, etc.

Finally, this paper presents an overview of related developments that, coupled with the optimization capabilities, further enhance the power of the whole package.

Publication: sf981574.pdf

Source: ICES 1998

Author: Brent A. Cullimore

Year: 1998

Content Tags: design optimization, model correlation, parameterize, parametric, two-phase flow, two-phase, optical properties, submodels, registers, expression editor, user logic, concurrent engineering, concurrent design, dynamic mode, dynamic SINDA, specific heat, solver, constraint, slip flow, Phenomena, capillary systems, mixtures, working fluids, nonequilibrium, vapor compression, uncertainty, uncertainty analysis

Optimization and Automated Data Correlation in the NASA Standard Thermal/Fluid System Analyzer

SINDA/FLUINT (Ref 1-7) is the NASA-standard heat transfer and fluid flow analyzer for thermal control systems. Because of its general formulation, it is also used in other aerospace specialties such as environmental control (ECLSS) and liquid propulsion, and in terrestrial industries such as electronics packaging, refrigeration, power generation, and transportation industries.

SINDA/FLUINT is used to design and simulate thermal/fluid systems that can be represented in networks corresponding to finite difference, finite element, and/or lumped parameter equations. In addition to conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer, the program can model steady or unsteady single- and two-phase flow networks.

C&R’s SinapsPlus® is a complete graphical user interface (preand postprocessor) and interactive model debugging environment for SINDA/FLUINT (Ref 8, 9). SinapsPlus also supports the C language in addition to the traditional choice of Fortran for concurrently executed user logic.

This paper describes revolutionary advances in SINDA/FLUINT, the NASA-standard heat transfer and fluid flow analyzer, changing it from a traditional point-design simulator into a tool that can help shape preliminary designs, rapidly perform parametrics and sensitivity studies, and even correlate modeling uncertainties using available test data.

Innovations include the incorporation of a complete spreadsheet-like module that allows users to centralize and automate model changes, even while thermal/fluid solutions are in progress. This feature reduces training time by eliminating many archaic options, and encourages the performance of parametrics and other what-if analyses that help engineers develop an intuitive understanding of their designs and how they are modeled.

The more revolutionary enhancement, though, is the complete integration of a nonlinear programming module that enables users to perform formal design optimization tasks such as weight minimization or performance maximization. The user can select any number of design variables and may apply any number of arbitrarily complex constraints to the optimization. This capability also can be used to find the best fit to available test data, automating a laborious but important task: the correlation of modeling uncertainties such as optical properties, contact conductances, as-built insulation performance, natural convection coefficients, etc.

Finally, this paper presents an overview of related developments that, coupled with the optimization capabilities, further enhance the power of the whole package.

Publication: sfpaper.pdf

Source: IECEC

Author: Brent A. Cullimore

Year: 1998

Content Tags: design optimization, model correlation, parameterize, parametric, two-phase flow, two-phase, optical properties, submodels, registers, expression editor, user logic, concurrent engineering, concurrent design, dynamic mode, dynamic SINDA, specific heat, solver, constraint, slip flow, Phenomena, capillary systems, mixtures, working fluids, nonequilibrium, vapor compression, uncertainty, uncertainty analysis

Free Molecular Heat Transfer Programs for Setup and Dynamic Updating the Conductors in Thermal Desktop

Thermal Desktop has the capability of modeling free molecular heat transfer (FMHT), but limitations are observed when working with large models during transient operation. To overcome this limitation, a MatLab program was developed that processes the Thermal Desktop free molecular conductors. It sets up the logic and arrays for the Thermal Desktop GUI used by SINDA/FLUINT. The theory of free molecular heating is presented along with the process required to setup the conductors, arrays, logic and Fortran subroutines for FMHT modeling in Thermal Desktop.

Publication: TFAWS07-1013.pdf

Source: TFAWS

Author: Eric T. Malroy

Year: 2007

Content Tags: transient, third-party software, user-defined Fortran array, radiation analysis groups, surface elements, radiation, radiation calculations, case set manager, user-defined Fortran arrays (UDFAs), submodels, radks

A CAD-based Tool for FDM and FEM Radiation and Conduction Modeling

Thermal engineering has long been left out of the concurrent engineering environment dominated by CAD (computer aided design) and FEM (finite element method) software.  Current tools attempt to force the thermal design process into an environment primarily created to support structural analysis, which results in inappropriate thermal models. As a result, many thermal engineers either build models “by hand” or use geometric user interfaces that are separate from and have little useful connection, if any, to CAD and FEM systems.

This paper describes the development of a new thermal design environment called the Thermal Desktop. This system, while fully integrated into a neutral, low-cost CAD system, and which utilizes both FEM and FD methods, does not compromise the needs of the thermal engineer. Rather, the features needed for concurrent thermal analysis are specifically addressed by combining traditional parametric surface-based radiation and FD based conduction modeling with CAD and FEM methods. The use of flexible and familiar temperature solvers such as SINDA/FLUINT is retained.

Publication: ices-98es-51.pdf

Source: ASME

Author: Tim Panczak, Steve Ring, Mark Welch

Year: 1997

Content Tags: finite element, finite difference, concurrent engineering, heater, heatpipe, heat pipe, radiation analysis groups, optical properties, Phenomena, refraction, scaffolding, CAD geometry, layers, expression editor, solver, mesh, mesher, structural mesh, ray tracing, boundary conditions, thermal stress, radiator, conductance, batteries, orbital heating, mli, multi-layer insulation, radks, articulation, articulating