Productivity bottlenecks for integrated thermal, structural, and optical design activities were identified and systematically eliminated, making possible automated exchange of design information between different engineering specialties.

Loss in optical fiber coupling efficiency and transmission are computed for a telecommunication optical circulator. Optical performance degradation is due to thermally induced optical errors in the two beam splitter cubes. The computation of the optical errors is discussed for two materials and the effects illustrated. Bulk volumetric absorption of the incident laser radiation from the input optical fiber and surface absorption via the coatings on the beam splitter interface generate temperature gradients.

Thermoelectric couples are solid-state devices capable of generating electrical power from a temperature gradient (known as the Seebeck effect) or converting electrical energy into a temperature gradient (known as the Peltier effect). Thermoelectric coolers, being solid state devices, have no moving parts which makes them inherently reliable and ideal for cooling components in a system sensitive to mechanical vibration. The ability to use TECs to heat as well as cool makes them suitable for applications requiring temperature stabilization of a device over a specified temperature range.