Publications

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Extending the Capabilities of Thermal Desktop with the OpenTD Application Programming Interface

With the release of Thermal Desktop 6.0, users now had the ability to interface with some of the many elements and constructs of a Thermal Desktop model through external applications developed using the TD API (Application Programming Interface). This file allows applications to be developed in the .NET framework and interface to a number of object types within a Thermal Desktop model. The release of 6.1 expands the subset of objects able to be manipulated and now includes the raw geometrical information of surfaces. With the release of 6.1, the API was now referred to as OpenTD. This paper discusses some of the utilities and capabilities developed using the OpenTD API at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These include utilities to help with configuration control of models and case sets, addition of logic to better process heater performance, and a methodology implemented to allow for submodel level processing of radiation couplings to include smaller radks where needed in a cryogenic region without using the same criteria for the warmer portions of the model. This last utility is targeting a reduction in run time without sacrificing accuracy. Lastly, some lessons learned, work-arounds, and wishes for the next release of the OpenTD API are also presented.

Publication: ICES-2020-297.pdf

Source: ICES

Author: Hume L. Peabody

Year: 2020

Content Tags: third-party software, OpenTD, heater, Monte Carlo, ray tracing, orbital heating, surface properties, parametric, parameterize, optical properties, thermophysical properties, symbols, absorptivity, mli, multi-layer insulation, case set manager, API

Passive Thermal Control Design Methods, Analysis, Comparison, and Evaluation for Micro and Nanosatellites Carrying Infrared Imager

Advancements in satellite technologies are increasing the power density of electronics and payloads. When the power consumption increases within a limited volume, waste heat generation also increases and this necessitates a proper and efficient thermal management system. Mostly, micro and nanosatellites use passive thermal control methods because of the low cost, no additional power requirement, ease of implementation, and better thermal performance. Passive methods lack the ability to meet certain thermal requirements on larger and smaller satellite platforms. This work numerically studies the performance of some of the passive thermal control techniques such as thermal straps, surface coatings, multi-layer insulation (MLI), and radiators for a 6U small satellite configuration carrying a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) payload whose temperature needs to be cooled down to 100K. Infrared (IR) imagers require low temperature, and the level of cooling is entirely dependent on the infrared wavelengths. These instruments are used for various applications including Earth observations, defence, and imaging at IR wavelengths. To achieve these low temperatures on such instruments, a micro-cryocooler is considered in this study. Most of the higher heat dissipating elements in the satellite are mounted to a heat exchanger plate, which is thermally coupled to an external radiator using thermal straps and heat pipes. The effects of the radiator size, orbital inclinations, space environments, satellite attitude with respect to the sun, and surface coatings are discussed elaborately for a 6U satellite configuration.

Publication: applsci-12-02858.pdf

Source: Applied Sciences, 2022, 12(6), 2858

Author: Shanmugasundaram Selvadurai, Amal Chandran, David Valentini, and Bret Lamprecht

Year: 2022

Content Tags: mli, multi-layer insulation, surface elements, surface coating a mesh, radiator, phase change material, thermocouples, finite element, finite elements, convergence, material properties, properties, CCHP

Integrated Analysis of Thermal/Structural/Optical Systems

Productivity bottlenecks for integrated thermal, structural, and optical design activities were identified and systematically eliminated, making possible automated exchange of design information between different engineering specialties.

The problems with prior approaches are summarized, then the implementation of the corresponding solutions is documented. Although the goal of this project was the automated evaluation of coupled thermal/optical/structural designs, significant process improvements were achieved for subset activities such as stand-alone thermal, thermal/ structural, and structural/optical design analysis.

Publication: optiOpt-ICES2002a.pdf

Source: Semi-Therm

Author: B. Cullimore, T. Panczak, J. Baumann, Dr. Victor Genberg, Mark Kahan

Year: 2002

Content Tags: finite element, finite elements, finite difference, parametric, conductance, contact conductance, design optimization, robust design, optical, registers, radiation, dynamic SINDA, dynamic mode

Automated Multidisciplinary Optimization of a Space-based Telescope

Automated design space exploration was implemented and demonstrated in the form of the multidisciplinary optimization of the design of a space-based telescope.

Off-the-shelf software representing the industry standards for thermal, structural, and optical analysis were employed. The integrated thermal/structural/optical models were collected and tasked with finding an optimum design using yet another off-the-shelf program. Using this integrated tool, the minimum mass thermal/structural design was found that directly satisfied optical performance requirements without relying on derived requirements such as isothermality and mechanical stability. Overdesign was therefore avoided, and engineering productivity was greatly improved.

This ambitious project was intended to be a pathfinder for integrated design activities. Therefore, difficulties and lessons learned are presented, along with recommendations for future investigations.

Publication: optiOpt-ICES2002b.pdf

Source: ICES

Author: B. Cullimore, T. Panczak, J. Baumann

Year: 2002

Content Tags: concurrent engineering, design optimization, parametric, robust design, design variables

Emittance & Absorptance for Cryo Testing

Upper Stage Tank Thermodynamic Modeling Using SINDA/FLUINT

Modeling to predict the condition of cryogenic propellants in an upper stage of a launch vehicle is necessary for mission planning and successful execution. Traditionally, this effort was performed using custom, in-house proprietary codes, limiting accessibility and application. Phenomena responsible for influencing the thermodynamic state of the propellant have been characterized as distinct events whose sequence defines a mission. These events include thermal stratification, passive thermal control roll (rotation), slosh, and engine firing. This paper demonstrates the use of an off the shelf, commercially available, thermal/fluid-network code to predict the thermodynamic state of propellant during the coast phase between engine firings, i.e. the first three of the above identified events. Results of this effort will also be presented.

Publication: AIAA-2006-50513.pdf

Source: AIAA

Author: P. Schallhorn, D. Michael Campbell, Sukhdeep Chase, Jorge Piquero, Cindy Fortenberry, Xiaoyi Li, Lisa Grob

Year: 2006

Content Tags: Optimization, parametric, radiation, radiation analysis groups, conduction, evaporation, CFD, convergence, structural, heat flux, thermal stratification, register, two-phase, slosh, wall, splash

Upper Stage Tank Thermodynamic Modeling Using SINDA/FLUINT (Presentation)

Publication: TFAWS-08-1009_presentation.pdf

Source: TFAWS Short Course

Author: Paul Schallhorn, D. Michael Campbell, Sukhdeep Chase, Jorge Piquero, Cindy Fortenberry, Xiaoyi Li, Lisa Grob

Year: 2008

Content Tags: CFD, two-phase, slosh, thermal stratification, diffusion, boundary layer, twinned tanks, boiling

Highlights in thermal engineering at Carlo Gavazzi Space

Publication: 17th_EWTES_MOLINA_FREQUENCYDOMAIN.pdf

Source: 17th Workshop on Thermal and ECLS Software-ESTEC

Author: Marco Molina, Christian Vettore

Year: 2003

Content Tags: third-party software, radks, heating rates

A CAD-based Tool for FDM and FEM Radiation and Conduction Modeling

Thermal engineering has long been left out of the concurrent engineering environment dominated by CAD (computer aided design) and FEM (finite element method) software.  Current tools attempt to force the thermal design process into an environment primarily created to support structural analysis, which results in inappropriate thermal models. As a result, many thermal engineers either build models “by hand” or use geometric user interfaces that are separate from and have little useful connection, if any, to CAD and FEM systems.

This paper describes the development of a new thermal design environment called the Thermal Desktop. This system, while fully integrated into a neutral, low-cost CAD system, and which utilizes both FEM and FD methods, does not compromise the needs of the thermal engineer. Rather, the features needed for concurrent thermal analysis are specifically addressed by combining traditional parametric surface-based radiation and FD based conduction modeling with CAD and FEM methods. The use of flexible and familiar temperature solvers such as SINDA/FLUINT is retained.

Publication: ices-98es-51.pdf

Source: ASME

Author: Tim Panczak, Steve Ring, Mark Welch

Year: 1997

Content Tags: finite element, finite difference, concurrent engineering, heater, heatpipe, heat pipe, radiation analysis groups, optical properties, Phenomena, refraction, scaffolding, CAD geometry, layers, expression editor, solver, mesh, mesher, structural mesh, ray tracing, boundary conditions, thermal stress, radiator, conductance, batteries, orbital heating, mli, multi-layer insulation, radks, articulation, articulating