Publications

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Free Molecular Heat Transfer Programs for Setup and Dynamic Updating the Conductors in Thermal Desktop

Thermal Desktop has the capability of modeling free molecular heat transfer (FMHT), but limitations are observed when working with large models during transient operation. To overcome this limitation, a MatLab program was developed that processes the Thermal Desktop free molecular conductors. It sets up the logic and arrays for the Thermal Desktop GUI used by SINDA/FLUINT. The theory of free molecular heating is presented along with the process required to setup the conductors, arrays, logic and Fortran subroutines for FMHT modeling in Thermal Desktop.

Publication: TFAWS07-1013.pdf

Source: TFAWS

Author: Eric T. Malroy

Year: 2007

Content Tags: transient, third-party software, user-defined Fortran array, radiation analysis groups, surface elements, radiation, radiation calculations, case set manager, user-defined Fortran arrays (UDFAs), submodels, radks

Crew Exploration Vehicle Composite Pressure Vessel Thermal Assessment

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the next generation space vehicle to follow the Space Shuttle. A design with the inclusion of a Composite Pressure Vessel (CPV) has been assessed for its thermal response. The temperature distribution on the CPV that results from the heat produced by internal spacecraft systems and external space environments was calculated as part of a project-level assessment to understand thermomechanical stresses. A finite element translation of the crew module CPV was integrated into an existing CEV Thermal Math Model (TMM) based on the 605 baseline configuration and analyzed for four orbital cases. Steady state temperature profiles were generated based on orbit average heating. Preliminary thermal analysis results suggest that the CPV requires less make-up energy when compared to the baseline aluminum pressure vessel. It is emphasized that only local make-up energy was considered in the study. The make-up energy did not include the zoning configuration that occurs with heaters. This document presents the approach and assumptions used for this thermal assessment.

Publication: TFAWS-08-1007_presentation.pdf

Source: TFAWS

Author: Laurie Y. Carrillo, Ángel R. Álvarez-Hernández, Steven L. Rickman

Year: 2008

Content Tags: finite element, finite elements, orbit, steady state, surface, optical properties, boundary conditions, temperature map, temperature mapping

Improvements to a Response Surface Thermal Model for Orion

Publication: TFAWS2011-PT-006.pps

Source: TFAWS

Author: Stephen W. Miller, William Q. Walker

Year: 2011

Content Tags: statistical methods, radiator, CAD geometry, radiation, orbit, parameterize, ray tracing, radks, steady state, dynamic mode, dynamic SINDA

Analysis of Post-reentry Heating and Soak-back Affects in Unsealed Reentry Vehicles

Maintaining low temperature payloads through atmospheric reentry and ground recovery is becoming a larger focus in the space program as work in biology, cryogenic and other temperature dependent sciences becomes a higher goal on the International Space Station (ISS) and extraterrestrial surfaces. Paragon analyzes reentry system thermal control, particularly technology regarding small thermally controlled payloads anticipated for use in sample return from the International Space Station.

To minimize system mass and utilize the powerful insulative properties of a hard space vacuum the internal cavity of a small reentry vehicle can be left open. Thermally this causes concern during reentry, as even at very high altitudes there is enough pressure to cause a significant impact on insulation stratagems, such as MLI that rely on a high vacuum. At lower altitudes the vehicle is moving much slower, so the intense heat load of reentry is finished but soak-back from outer heated surfaces to the payload is a significant issue when air is present to facilitate heat transfer between layers. Initial assumptions that the cold temperatures of the upper atmosphere would cause a net cooling affect in the post-reentry times were overturned by a simple analysis set done in Thermal Desktop involving worst and best case scenarios as air starts to enter the vehicle. Additionally, CFD low pressure zones were shown to exist behind the vehicle where it is open to the atmosphere when the vehicle is travelling at extreme reentry speeds. These pressures are not so low however to prevent air from entering the vehicle. The impacts of this now apparent soak back, during the last phases of an atmospheric reentry were investigated leading to the conclusion that analyses of lower atmospheric portions of a reentry are critical to reentry studies and significantly changed the results.

An updated design is theorized using the knowledge gained from the preliminary studies called the Cryogenic Extended Duration and Reentry Thermal Control System (CEDR TCS) and the design is fully passive making it a low-complexity, zero-power system that does not necessitate the use of any consumables. The CEDR TCS uses a two-way pressure relief valve or “breather valve” that would allow the pressures inside and outside the vehicle to equilibrate once a great enough pressure differential is applied. This will allow air to leave while the unit is in space vacuum and prevent air from coming in until much later in the re-entry after much of the reentry heat has had a chance to convect to the upper atmosphere. Through further analysis CEDR is hoped to display a capability of near cryogenic temperatures through an atmospheric reentry and long durations on the ground.

Publication: TFAWS2011-AE-005.pdf

Source: TFAWS

Author: Erika T. Bannon, Jared Leidich, Alex Walker

Year: 2011

Content Tags: mli, multi-layer insulation, heat loads, design optimization, CFD, transient, insulation, model correlation, phase change material, PCM, radiation, sink temperature, heat flux, radks, radiation analysis group, material properties

Thermal Modeling of Nanosat

Advances in computer technologies and manufacturing processes allow creation of highly sophisticated components in compact platform. For example, a small scale satellite, such as the CubeSat, can now be used for scientific research in space rather than big scale project like the International Space Station (ISS). Recently a team of undergraduate and graduate students at SJSU has the opportunity to collaborate on designing and building a miniature size CubeSat with the dimension of 10x10x10 cm. Although the integration of compact electronics allows sophisticated scientific experiments and missions to be carried out in space, the thermal control options for such small spacecraft are limited. For example, because of its small size there is no room for dedicated radiator or insulation panels. To minimize mass of the thermal control system while keeping the electronics at safe operating conditions, this thesis aims at studying the external orbital radiation heat flux the CubeSat is expected to expose to and the steady state heat conduction of the internal electronics. If the operating temperature from these heating conditions causes issue, appropriate thermal control solutions will be presented.

Publication: Dihn.S12.pdf

Source: San José State University

Author: Dai Q. Dinh

Year: 2012

Content Tags: heat flux, orbital heating, steady state, conduction, wall, boundary condition, third-party software, radiation, albedo, material properties, optical properties, parametric

Thermo-electrochemical analysis of lithium ion batteries for space applications using Thermal Desktop

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are replacing the Nickel–Hydrogen batteries used on the International Space Station (ISS). Knowing that LIB efficiency and survivability are greatly influenced by temperature, this study focuses on the thermo-electrochemical analysis of LIBs in space orbit. Current finite element modeling software allows for advanced simulation of the thermo-electrochemical processes; however the heat transfer simulation capabilities of said software suites do not allow for the extreme complexities of orbital-space environments like those experienced by the ISS. In this study, we have coupled the existing thermo-electrochemical models representing heat generation in LIBs during discharge cycles with specialized orbital-thermal software, Thermal Desktop (TD). Our model's parameters were obtained from a previous thermo-electrochemical model of a 185 Amp-Hour (Ah) LIB with 1–3 C (C) discharge cycles for both forced and natural convection environments at 300 K. Our TD model successfully simulates the temperature vs. depth-of-discharge (DOD) profiles and temperature ranges for all discharge and convection variations with minimal deviation through the programming of FORTRAN logic representing each variable as a function of relationship to DOD. Multiple parametrics were considered in a second and third set of cases whose results display vital data in advancing our understanding of accurate thermal modeling of LIBs.

Publication: TD_Application.pdf

Source: Science Direct (Journal of Power Sources)

Author: W. Walker, H. Ardebili

Year: 2014

Content Tags: batteries, orbital heating, orbit, finite element, parametric, thermoelectric, convection heat transfer, variable, user-defined Fortran array, user-defined Fortran arrays (UDFAs)

Optimization, Data Correlation, and Parametric Analysis Features in SINDA/FLUINT Version 4.0

This paper describes revolutionary advances in SINDA/FLUINT, the NASA-standard heat transfer and fluid flow analyzer, changing it from a traditional point-design simulator into a tool that can help shape preliminary designs, rapidly perform parametrics and sensitivity studies, and even correlate modeling uncertainties using available test data.

Innovations include the incorporation of a complete spreadsheet-like module that allows users to centralize and automate model changes, even while thermal/fluid solutions are in progress. This feature reduces training time by eliminating many archaic options, and encourages the performance of parametrics and other what-if analyses that help engineers develop an intuitive understanding of their designs and how they are modeled.

The more revolutionary enhancement, though, is the complete integration of a nonlinear programming module that enables users to perform formal design optimization tasks such as weight minimization or performance maximization. The user can select any number of design variables and may apply any number of arbitrarily complex constraints to the optimization. This capability also can be used to find the best fit to available test data, automating a laborious but important task: the correlation of modeling uncertainties such as optical properties, contact conductances, as-built insulation performance, natural convection coefficients, etc.

Finally, this paper presents an overview of related developments that, coupled with the optimization capabilities, further enhance the power of the whole package.

Publication: sf981574.pdf

Source: ICES 1998

Author: Brent A. Cullimore

Year: 1998

Content Tags: design optimization, model correlation, parameterize, parametric, two-phase flow, two-phase, optical properties, submodels, registers, expression editor, user logic, concurrent engineering, concurrent design, dynamic mode, dynamic SINDA, specific heat, solver, constraint, slip flow, Phenomena, capillary systems, mixtures, working fluids, nonequilibrium, vapor compression, uncertainty, uncertainty analysis